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Encyclopedia of Earthquake Engineering

Living Edition
| Editors: Michael Beer, Ioannis A. Kougioumtzoglou, Edoardo Patelli, Ivan Siu-Kui Au

Artificial Offshore Seismic Sources

  • Wolfgang RabbelEmail author
  • Dennis Wilken
Living reference work entry
DOI: http://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-36197-5_381-1
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Synonym

Introduction

Artificial Offshore Seismic Sources are instruments that are used for generating short-duration pressure pulses in the marine water column, usually with constant repetition rate. They provide the acoustic energy for marine seismic surveys. Marine seismic surveys are performed in order to image geological structure (layers and faults) beneath the seafloor and to characterize rocks and rock strength in terms of seismic wave velocity or dynamic elastic constants. Therefore, short pressure pulses are applied to the water column that travel as acoustic waves down to the sea bottom where they are converted into seismic body and interface waves (elastic waves). These seismic waves penetrate deeper into the underground and are partially reflected at geological interfaces and/or refracted back to the surface (Fig. 1, right). This returning part of the wave field is recorded either at the seafloor with seismographs or in the...
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References

  1. Jones EJW (1999) Marine geophysics. Wiley, Chichester
  2. Meunier J (2011) Seismic acquisition from yesterday to tomorrow. Society of Exploration Geophysicists, Tulsa
  3. Sheriff LE, Geldart LP (1995) Exploration seismology, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
  4. Tenghamn J (2006) An electrical marine vibrator with a flextensional shell. Explor Geophys 37:286–291

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2021

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of GeosciencesUniversity of KielKielGermany